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Monday, 16 October 2017

Salvation Army

In 1865 one-time Methodist circuit-preacher William Booth began work as an unattached evangelist heading up 'The Christian Mission' aimed at the unprivileged classes that lived in unspeakable poverty in the East End of London.

Thirteen years later, Booth and his wife Catherine reorganized the mission, introducing the military structure which has been retained to the present day.

"The Salvation Army" name developed from an incident when William Booth was reading a printer's proof of the 1878 “Christian Mission” annual report. He noticed the statement "The Christian Mission is a volunteer army." Booth seized a pen, crossed out "volunteer" and wrote instead "salvation", thus coining the title "Salvation Army" for his movement.

The Christian Mission becomes The Salvation Army (May 1878)

William Booth became known as the General, Catherine is known as the "Mother of The Salvation Army". The other ministers were given appropriate ranks as "officers". Other members became "soldiers."

General Booth summed up the purpose of his organization  in the following way: "We are a salvation people - this is our specialty - getting saved and keeping saved, and then getting somebody else saved.”

The Salvation Army has adopted a uniform including bonnets, which provided protective headgear when the going got rough. The bonnet was worn for the first time on June 16, 1880 at William and Catherine Booth's silver wedding in Whitechapel.

The Salvation Army founders, Catherine and William Booth

The newly launched Salvation Army launched an offensive throughout the British Isles that converted 250,000 Christians between 1881 and 1885.

In 1880, the Salvation Army started its work in three other countries: Australia, Ireland, and the United States. The message spread rapidly,  and they soon gained a foothold in Canada, France, Switzerland, India, South Africa and Germany.

The worldwide expansion of Salvation army. Wikipedia Commons

The Salvation Army's main converts were at first alcoholics, morphine addicts, prostitutes and other "undesirables" unwelcome in polite Christian society. Booth decided not to celebrate Holy Communion due to the large proportion of ex-alcoholics in his congregations. He also refused to advocate baptism, believing that many Christians had come to rely on the outward signs of spiritual grace rather than on grace itself. Other beliefs were that its members should completely refrain from drinking alcohol, smoking and gambling.

There was frequent opposition to the Army’s methods and principles in its early years. The evangelical politician Lord Shaftesbury, for instance, concluded that the newly formed Salvation Army was a trick of the devil.

In 1882, 642 Salvation Army officers, including women, were assaulted and 60 of their buildings destroyed in Britain. This "Hallelujah" Band of converted criminals and ex alcoholics were meeting violent opposition. An opposing group coined the Skeleton Army was organized to break up its meetings by throwing rotten eggs, stones and rats or beating officers with sticks. This 'rabble of roughs' was supported by brewers who opposed Booth's teetotal advocating as a threat to their trade, and the brewers offered a shilling each for each Salvation Army ladies' bonnet captured by the Skeleton Army.

The picture below shows members of the Salvation Army being pursued by the Skeleton Army with its distinctive skull and crossbones banner.


In October 1890, Booth published his major social manifesto, In Darkest England and the Way Out. Booth declared, "A starving man cannot hear you preaching. Give him a bowl of soup and he will listen to every word."

In his manifesto, Booth explored various far-reaching ideas, such as providing hostels, employment centres and helping young men learn agricultural trades before emigrating. So significant and conclusive were his findings that the authorities began  to accept the validity of the Salvation Army.

In 1902 King Edward VII invited General Booth to be officially present at his coronation ceremony. This marked a sea change in the public acceptance of the work the Salvation Army was doing amongst the poor and needy in Britain.

Booth in later years

In the United States, The Salvation Army's reputation improved as a result of its disaster relief efforts following the Galveston Hurricane of 1900 and the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake.

In 2004 The Salvation Army received the largest gift ever given to a charity — a donation of $1.6 billion from the estate of Joan B. Kroc, widow of the founder of McDonald’s Corp.

The current world leader of The Salvation Army is General André Cox, who was elected by the High Council of The Salvation Army on August 3, 2013.

Today, The Salvation Army is active in virtually every corner of the world and serves in 127 countries, offering the message of God’s healing and hope to all those in need. It over 1.5 million members consisting of officers, soldiers, and adherents, who as well as meeting to worship God every Sunday, the Salvation Army also run charity shops, operate shelters for the homeless and provide disaster relief and humanitarian aid to developing countries.




Source Salvationarmy.org.uk

Sunday, 15 October 2017

Salt

SALT IN HISTORY

Prehistoric Man was used to obtaining the salt he needed from eating animal meat. As he turned more to agriculture and his diet changed he found that sea-salt from sea water, inland springs or saltwater lakes gave his vegetables the same salty flavor he was accustomed to with meat.


By the sixth century BC salt was being extracted from mines in various locations. The first city in Europe, Solnitsata, in Bulgaria, had a salt mine, providing the area now known as the Balkans with salt since 5400 BC. Even the name Solnisata means "salt works".

Around Lake Yuncheng in Ancient China each year, people would gather the valuable salt square crystals on the surface of the water when the lake's waters evaporated in the summer sun. As a consequence there were numerous battles fought over control of the lake.

The Chinese Png-tzao-kan-mu, ("The Classic Herbal") the first ever treatise on pharmacology dating to 2700BC, records more than 40 types of salt. It describes two methods of extracting and processing the mineral.

The first great Roman road was the Via Salaria (salt road), leading from Rome to the Adriatic Sea, where salt was gathered.

The Romans paid their soldiers and civil servants with salt, a valuable commodity. This stipend was called salarium, from which we get the word ‘salary’.

In Leonardo da Vinci's painting of The Last Supper, Judas Iscariot is seen behind a spilt salt cellar. Hence the belief that spilt salt is unlucky.

The voyages of Christopher Columbus were said to have been financed from salt production in southern Spain.

Salt production in Halle, Saxony-Anhalt (1670)

In the 18th and 19th century, blocks of salt were used as currency in Abyssinia (now Ethiopia).

SALT PRODUCTION

We eat 6 per cent of all salt production. Of the remainder, 12% is used in water conditioning processes, 8% goes for de-icing highways and 6% is used in agriculture. The other 68% is used for manufacturing and other industrial processes.

In 2013, total world production of salt was 264 million tonnes, the top five producers being China (71 million), the United States (40 million), India (18 million), Germany (12 million) and Canada (11 million.

Because salt is cheap and plentiful in many parts of the world, yet bulky and expensive to transport, it is a heavily regional commodity. China, the world's biggest saltmaker, used the 71m tonnes it produced in 2013 at home.

Open pan salt making in the town of Bo Kluea, Thailand. By Takeaway 

The lowest grade of gritting salt for de-icing roads generally sells for around $40-50 a tonne in America and Britain.

Like mineral salt, production of sea salt dates to prehistoric times. Generally more expensive than table salt, it is commonly used in gourmet cooking because it is believed to taste better. Discerning gourmets pay the equivalent of $70,000 a tonne or more for fleur de sel, the highest-quality French sea salt, harvested by hand at picturesque locations.

FUN SALT FACTS 

Salt is mostly sodium chloride, the ionic compound with the formula NaCl, representing equal proportions of sodium and chlorine.

Salt is the only rock that can be used by humans as food.

Bolivia has the world’s largest salt flats, at 10,582 km2 (4,086 sq mi).  Located there is The Palacio de Sal Hotel and Spa, a hotel built with a million blocks of salt.

Palacio de Sal Hotel. By Phil Whitehouse 

Eating too much salt can kill you. In fact, salt-eating was a method of suicide in ancient China.

A baby cannot taste salt until it is 4 months old.

When crops are grown in places that don't rain enough, it destroys the land because of too much salt.

All of the Earth's oceans combined contain enough salt to cover all the continents to a depth of nearly 500 ft.

If all the salt in the oceans was removed, it would fill a cube with sides 175 miles (280km) long.

Sources Food For Thought by Ed Pearce, Daily Express, The Economist


Saturday, 14 October 2017

Salmon

Salmon is the common name for several species of ray-finned marine or freshwater fish in the family Salmonidae. Other fish in the same family include trout grayling and whitefish.

Salmon is technically a white fish. It gets that orange color from a diet of crustaceans.

Atlantic salmon

Salmon are native to tributaries of the North Atlantic (genus Salmo) and Pacific Ocean (genus Oncorhynchus). Many species of salmon have been introduced into non-native environments such as the Great Lakes of North America and Patagonia in South America.

LIFE CYCLE

The salmon spawning season is between September and January although they occasionally spawn at other times. The orange eggs, about 6 mm/0.in in diameter, are laid on the river bed, fertilized by the male, and then covered with gravel by the female. The incubation period is from five weeks to five months.

Spawning sockeye salmon in Becharof Creek, Becharof Wilderness, Alaska

The young hatched salmon are known as alevins, and when they begin feeding they are called parr.

At about two years old, the salmon's coat becomes silvery, and they are then known as smolts.

Folklore has it that the fish return to the exact spot in the freshwater streams where they were born; tracking studies have shown this to be mostly true.

Depending on the species, salmon may spend up to four years at sea before returning to their home streams to spawn (at this stage called grilse), often overcoming great obstacles to get there and die.

FARMING
Salmon are intensively farmed in many parts of the world. It is a major contributor to the world production of farmed finfish, representing about US$10 billion annually.

Salmon aquaculture is especially significant in Canada, Chile, Norway and Scotland.

Salmon are increasingly “farmed” in open-net cages, which have low production costs.

Rainbow trout farm in an archipelago of Finland. By Plenz 

Another form of salmon production, which is safer but less controllable, is to raise salmon in hatcheries. Once independent, they are released into rivers in an attempt to increase the salmon population. They are then caught when they return to spawn. This system is referred to as ranching. However, it argued that stocking rivers indiscriminately with hatchery fish may destroy the precision of the salmon's homing instinct by interbreeding between those originating in different rivers.

SALMON IN HISTORY

Westminster Abbey in London is built close to where a vision of St Peter is said to have been seen on the Thames by a salmon fisherman named Edric. The Fishermen’s Company offers a salmon to Westminster Abbey each year in memory of this.

In 1825 Ezra Daggett and Thomas Kensett of New York City patented a canning process to preserve salmon and other seafood.

As a child, David Lloyd George poached salmon. Later as a solicitor, he gained a reputation for his defence of poachers.

Water quality has steadily improved in the River Thames since sewers were repaired in the 1960s, and a salmon was caught in the River Thames on November 12, 1974, the first seen in the 20th century. The river is now home to wild salmon,

SALMON AS FOOD

You can cook salmon in the dishwasher. Wrap your salmon tightly in foil and put your dishwasher on the highest and hottest cycle for a perfectly poached salmon.


The Japanese considered raw salmon dangerous, since Pacific salmon was prone to parasites. When Norway found it had too much salmon the Norwegians decided to focus on teaching Japanese consumers that Atlantic salmon was safe to eat raw. It took ten years for Salmon sushi/sashimi to finally become popular.

AquAdvantage salmon was the first genetically modified animal approved by the US FDA for human consumption.

Source Hutchinson Encyclopedia

Friday, 13 October 2017

Saliva

Saliva is the watery substance made in the mouths of humans and many animals, which aids the digestion of food.

HUMAN SALIVA 

The average human mouth produces 1.8 pints (1 litre) of saliva a day.

Saliva forming on the lips of that of a human baby. By Pereru 

In a lifetime, the average person produces more than 40,000 pints of saliva-enough to fill two large swimming pools.

The average talker sprays about 300 microscopic saliva droplets per minute, about 2.5 droplets per word.

Your body typically produces the most saliva in the late afternoon, and the least at night.

We produce a lot of saliva just before vomiting in order to protect our teeth from erosion due the acidity of vomit.

Human saliva comprises 99.5% water, plus electrolytes, mucus, white blood cells, epithelial cells (which can be used to extract DNA), glycoproteins, enzymes (such as amylase and lipase), and antimicrobial agents such as secretory IgA and lysozym.


The composition of saliva is similar to tears - they're both made of proteins, salt and hormones.

Human saliva has a painkiller called opiorphin that’s more powerful than morphine.

The anticipation of a kiss increases the flow of saliva to the mouth, giving the teeth a plaque-dispersing bath.

Human saliva has a boiling point three times that of regular water.

Humans can't taste food without saliva. Chemoreceptors in the taste buds of your tongue require a liquid medium in order for the flavors to bind into the receptor molecules. If you don't have liquid, you won't see results.

Dieting can cause bad breath since less saliva is produced which leads to dry mouth.

Spitting is the act of forcibly ejecting saliva or other substances from the mouth. It is often considered rude and a social taboo.

 By Infrogmation of New Orleans - Photo by Infrogmation, 

Art restorers use saliva to clean oil paintings.

ANIMAL SALIVA

Vampire bat's saliva contains an anticlotting agent that has been used as a treatment for blood clots in humans. According to scientists, it is the best known medicine for keeping blood from clotting.

Some swiftlets build nests from their hardened saliva. These nests are considered a delicacy in China, where they are used to make soup.

Mosquito bites are itchy because the bug's saliva is injected into the skin, causing a histamine reaction.

The saliva of a chameleon is 400 times more sticky than human saliva.

Cows can produce up to 180 litres of saliva in one day  They produce five times as much saliva as milk.

Camels spit when provoked. The "spit" from a camel is more than just saliva. It is a mixture of the camel’s stomach contents as well.


SALIVA IN HISTORY

In ancient Japan, an early version of sake was made by villagers who chewed a mixture of chestnuts, millet and rice, before spitting the mixture into a tub, allowing it to mold. The spit of Japanese villagers was a vital component of brewing the drink—the enzymes in their saliva aided the fermentation process.

The first envelopes with gummed flaps were produced in 1844. In Britain, they were not immediately popular because it was thought to be a serious insult to send a person's saliva to someone else.

In the 1890s the Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov (September 26, 1849 - February 27, 1936) studied digestion, utilizing his medical abilities to divide a dog's stomach enabling him to collect its gastric juice. During this work he noted the way in which dogs salivate when stimulated by the routine of feeding. In a well-known experiment he trained a hungry dog to salivate at the sound of a bell. This prompted him to pursue further experiments concerning conditioned reflexes in the nervous system. Pavlov's work laid a foundation for the scientific analysis of human behavior. In 1904 he was awarded the Nobel prize for physiology or medicine for his work on digestive secretions.

Source Thoughtco

Thursday, 12 October 2017

J. D. Salinger

J. D. Salinger was born Jerome David Salinger in Manhattan, New York on January 1, 1919.

October 11, 1950 Photographed by Lotte Jacobi.  Wikipedia 

Salinger attended New York University, Ursinus College, and Columbia University in succession. While taking night classes at the latter, he met Whit Burnett, a professor who also edited Story magazine. Burnett told Salinger that his stories were skillful and accomplished, accepting The Young Folks, a vignette about several aimless youths, for publication in Story

Salinger started dating Oona O'Neill, daughter of the playwright Eugene O'Neill in the early 1940s. Their relationship ended when Oona began seeing Charlie Chaplin, whom she eventually married.

JD Salinger took a job as activities director on board a luxury Caribbean cruise liner, the MS Kungsholm in 1941. That same year, he wrote a short story for The New Yorker called Slight Rebellion Off Madison, but its publication was postponed due to the attack on Pearl Harbor and Salinger was drafted into the US Army and posted to Normandy.

During his service from 1942 to 1944, Salinger began working on a play featuring Slight Rebellion Off Madison's main character, a disaffected teenager named Holden Cauldfield, Salinger even kept pages on his person when marching into battle.

Traumatized by some very bloody battles on D-Day and in Luxembourg, Salinger suffered a nervous breakdown in Nuremburg in 1945 and was hospitalized for a spell in a mental hospital.

After recovering from his breakdown, Salinger had a short spell doing military service in the counter-intelligence division in Germany before returning to New York in 1946.

Salinger continued to write, contributing short stories to various outlets. Slight Rebellion Off Madison was finally printed later in 1946. He also continued working on his work about Holden Cauldfield – now as a novel. This would become his cult classic of teenage angst, The Catcher in the Rye.


In 1948, Salinger's critically acclaimed short story A Perfect Day for Bananafish appeared in The New Yorker magazine, which became home to much of his later work.

Producer Darryl Zanuck purchased the rights to another of Salinger's short stories, Uncle Wiggily in Connecticut. Released as My Foolish Heart in 1949, it earned actress Susan Hayward an Oscar nomination.

By 1950, Salinger had completed The Catcher in the Rye, Harcourt Brace agreed to publish, the work but the author broke away from the deal after they insisted on rewrites. The untouched book was eventually released by Little, Brown and Company on July 16, 1951. It became an immediate popular success.

The success of The Catcher in the Rye led to public attention and scrutiny. Salinger became reclusive, publishing new work less frequently.

His best known post-Catcher In the Rye work were Salinger's stories of the Jewish Glass family, including Franny and Zooey published in 1961.

Salinger on the cover of Time (September 15, 1961)

Salinger never published an original work after 1965 and was never interviewed after 1980.

The reclusive Salinger did not like publicity. He told his agent to burn any mail that fans sent him and refused to have his his photograph on the jacket of his books.

The founder of Norton Antivirus purchased, at an auction, love letters written by the reclusive Sailinger to American novelist and journalist Joyce Maynard. He returned the letters to the author out of respect for his privacy.

On January 27, 2010, Salinger died in his home in Cornish, New Hampshire of natural causes at age 91.


Sources Mental Floss, Huffington Posr

Wednesday, 11 October 2017

Salem witch trials

The Salem Witch Trials took place in 1692 in Salem, Massachusetts. During the Trials, over 150 people were arrested and put in jail after being accused of practicing witchcraft. Even more people were accused, but were never formally charged by the authorities.

The central figure in this 1876 illustration is usually identified as Mary Walcott

20 people were executed as a result of the Salem Witch Trials, fourteen of them women. All but one of those deemed to be witches were killed by hanging. Five others (including two infant children) died in prison. Two dogs were executed for the crime of witchcraft as well.

Bridget Bishop's case was the first brought to the grand jury. Bishop was accused of not living a Puritan lifestyle, for she dressed differently and owned a tavern in her home, where shuffleboard was played and minors were served. Her odd costumes and "immoral" lifestyle, affirmed that she was a witch. She went to trial the same day and was convicted. On June 10, 1692, Bishop was the first witch in the Salem trials to be executed by hanging.

Bridget Bishop, as depicted in a lithograph

Another suspected witch was Martha Corey, who was accused of witchcraft by two emotionally aroused young girls. Refusing to confess, she was hanged and her husband was slowly pressed to death under heavy stones.

On January 15, 1697, Salem and the Massachusetts Bay Colony proclaimed a day of fasting and repentance before God for the tragic error and folly of the Salem witch trials. Among the reasons for the day of fasting given by the resolution were, "so all of God's people may offer up fervent supplications unto him, that all iniquity may be put away, which hath stirred God's holy jealousy against this land; that he would show us what we know not, and help us, wherein we have done amiss, to do so no more."

Samuel Sewall (1652-1730), one of the three presiding judges involved in the Salem witchcraft trials, admitted in 1697 that the convictions were a mistake. He accepted the "blame and shame" for them and for the next 33 years until his death the judge annually spent a day of repentance in fasting and prayer.

Samuel Sewall 1729, by John Smibert
Within a decade, the local court had declared the trials unlawful, passed a bill restoring the good names of the accused and granted £600 restitution to their heirs.

Writers Ralph Waldo Emerson and Ray Bradbury, actors Christopher Reeve, actress Linda Hamilton, and astronaut Alan Shepard are all descendants of Mary Bradbury, a woman tried and sentenced in the Salem Witch Trials who escaped death and lived to age 85.

The actress Sarah Jessica Parker, who played a witch convicted in the Salem witch trials in the Disney movie Hocus Pocus, later discovered that her great grandmother, Esther Elwell, was accused of witchcraft during the Salem Trials, because a 17-year-old girl had claimed to have seen her among 'three spectres' pressing down on a woman who died. Esther escaped trial when the prosecution for witchcraft was abolished.

Arthur Miller's play, The Crucible, is a dramatized and partially fictionalized story of the Salem witch trials, in which he compares McCarthyism to a witch-hunt. The play was first performed at the Martin Beck Theatre on Broadway on January 22, 1953 in the midst of a period when senator Joseph McCarthy was the visible public face of the government ostracizing people for being communists.

In Salem today, police cars are adorned with witch logos, a school is known as the Witchcraft Heights Elementary School and the Salem High School athlete team is the Witches.

Source Christianity.com

Tuesday, 10 October 2017

Salary

A salary is a form of payment from an employer to an employee, which is usually paid for a fixed period of time, like a month or a week. If someone is not a salaried employee, they are generally an hourly employee.


Part of a Roman soldier's pay was made in salt, known as "salarium". That is why the pay of today is known as a salary.

In 1592 Galilei Galileo was appointed to the chair of mathematics at Padua University, at the time the premier university in Italy. As a mere Mathematics University Lecturer, Galileo received 160 scudi per year, 1/30th the salary of a Professor of Medicine. As Galileo's university salary could not cover all his expenses, he was forced to take in well-to-do boarding students whom he tutored privately.

In August 1599 Galileo was rewarded with a new, six-year contract, retroactive to December 1598, with a salary of 320 ducats doubling of his salary. This meant he was now one of the highest-paid professors at the university.

Galileo by Justus Sustermans 

The salary for Britain's first official Poet Laureate in 1668 was £200 a year plus a butt of canary (110 gallons of Spanish sherry).

As USA's first president, George Washington pulled in a salary of $25,000 a year, equal to 2% of the total U.S. budget in 1789. Apparently excited by his newfound purchasing power, Washington started living it up, reportedly buying leopard-skin robes for all his horses and spending seven percent of his income on alcohol.


Lord Nelson's annual salary, at the time of the Battle of Trafalgar, was approximately £600pa.

In 1830 in the UK, a select committee recommended that the salary of the First Lord of the Treasury (Prime Minister) and other senior Cabinet ministers-except for the Lord Chancellor- should be £5,000 per year.

That recommendation was accepted by Parliament in 1832. The beneficiary of this first prime ministerial salary was Earl Grey. Parliament also gave the Lord Chancellor an aggregate salary of £14,000 per year.

Members of the U.S. Congress raised their own pay to $7500 each in 1907. Both House and Senate members got the same bucks while the Cabinet members and the Vice President would earn twelve grand.

Babe Ruth made his major-league debut with the Boston Red Sox in 1914 at an annual rookie salary of $2,900.

Winston Churchill was on a prime minister's salary of £10,000 pa in 1943.

The salary of the President of the United States was increased from $75,000 to $100,000 in 1939 with an additional $50,000 expense allowance added for each year in office.

John F Kennedy did not keep his $100,000 salary; instead he donated it to charity.

José Alberto "Pepe" Mujica Cordano became President of Uruguay in 2010 serving for five years. During his time in office Cordano was called "the world's 'poorest' president" because he donated around 90 percent of his $12,000 monthly salary to charities to help poor people and small entrepreneurs.

José Mujica in 2009.

There is a $44,000 salary cap for unionized doormen in New York City.